Samnyasa and Tyaga
By Sri Janardana
SAMNYASA AND TYAGA
Of the very many yogic concepts requiring careful study, analysis, understanding, and application before one can success fully tread the superb path of the one Greatest Yoga for all time, to its end Samnyasa and Tyaga demand our closest attention and enquiry, because they are the two vital and potential agencies through whose aid alone the empyrean heights of the said Yoga can be reached.
By the term - Greatest Yoga, it is of course meant Adhyatma Yoga or Suddha-Yoga or Brahma--Yoga or Raja. Yoga, above which there is no Yoga higher at all, to recover and restore the lost knowledge of which, the Ishwara incarnates from time to time. It is not superfluous to remind ourselves here, that this raja Yoga has nothing in common with the Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali, which has been mistakenly - let us not state mischievously termed Raja Yoga. The end, which this Adhyatma Yoga advocates, even as a starting point of aspiration, is the direct contacting of the One Ishwara in the fourth plane technically known as Turiya orYaktam or Yogam, eulogized in the scriptures as Paramatma, Vasudeva, Satchidanandaroopa, the One Source of all cosmic emana¬tions and processes, by Whom those processes and emanations are sustained, and in Whom they all ultimately converge. It is a sublime Unity, the magnificent Fullness and Richness of which our limited vision can hardly comprehend, but can be progressively striven for, achieved, and also lived too in this our every-day life, through a simple application of the yogic processes, which this Raja Yoga teaches. In the language of the Ishwara-Incarnate - Lord Krishna, the performance and application of these yogic processes to life are described exquisitely pleasant - Susukham kartum. The influences that act as purifying and subtilising agencies of those in the path to get at the requisite success in it are Samnyasa and Tyaga. That these agencies are likewise pleasant can be well gathered if we free ourselves from the grotesque notions, meanings, and practices that have grown around them, and understand their, import in the light of the Lord's teachings.
To attain the contact with the Divinity in the fourth plane which is a Wholeness, and not merely with Its partial aspects of the lower levels in it, the first principle, in this Yoga is to maintain the physical body in perfect condition, not as an end in itself but just a means, since it is only through the aid of the said body that the seeker's aspiration has to be, and, can also be established. In the Shrutis, this act in respect of the physical body which encases the subtler vehicles within is itself termed a Yoga - tam yogamiti manyante sthiram indriya dharanam. The natural result of this healthy aim redounds itself in a meticulous regard and, carefulness in respect of all acts of thought, word and deed, that are to be done and of those to be desisted from being done on the basis of the higher Yoga - apramattastada bhavati yogo hi prabhavapyayow. So that, not only to free ourselves from the deteriorating influence of old age - jara, to which this body is subject to, but also to get rid of the root ignorance which is itself know as death - mrityu, maranam, the importance of this Yoga to those who are its aspirants should be obvious - jaramaranamokshaya mamasritya yatanti ye. Longevity then, immortality in the long run with all the bodily vehicles in perfect tact, not for indulging in the mere sense-pursuits, nor for satisfying the egotistic seeking of power, self, possessions, fame, and the like in an unreasonably passionate way, but for securing the divine touch and with it, Its grace, so that we may become Its fit and faithful vehicles for the sake of the world’s weal - lokasangraha, becomes a natural accompli¬shment in this Yoga even as we progress.
Unquestionably, it should be stated, then that the effective technique of this Great yoga in its higher stages can be fully known to those who have previously treaded this path. Their number is legion in this land even now, though not available in the market place with hall-marks to cater to our egocentric purposes and pursuits; and it is only They who comprehend this Wholeness Brahm efficiently in its adhyatmic or the unitary aspect and also in its multiple sphere, wherein, the operation, of all actionings - Karma, is carried on unrelinquished and unrelinquishable - Te brahama tadviduhu kritsnamadhyatmam karma chakhilam; because, the Fullness requires to be known even as the One and the Many at once - ekatwena pritaktwena bahuda viswatom mukham. Such are the characteristics of the true Yogis, the Masters of Suddha Dharma Mandalam engaged ever for the world's weal according to the divine behest.
To them in the light of the divine teachings, to get at the contact with the Divine, and also to preserve the body in a working condition, purification is an act, not to be conveniently left to the Divine, as is advocated in the modern Integral Yoga School, claiming greater efficiency and aim unwarrantedly than the Gita Yoga, but-one that has to be actively strived for and attained as a condi¬tion previously necessary before those objects can be realized. The said purification is not got unless the aspirant has learnt to build up in his system gradually Samnyasa and Tyaga - Samnyasa tyga suddhireva abhvat. And in the absence of the said purification divine contact is a mere moon-shine and make-believe.
So that, to determine in our free-will impulsively and on the wrong basis of a mistaken notion of surrender – saranam - not to effect the necessary purification ourselves when the Divine Law is that we alone have to do it, and also to expect and exhort the Divine to do it for us on the naive plea of our ignorance of the extent of our impurity, by imagining to establish or to have esta¬blished a contact with It somehow, is negative egotism at its height more formidable than its positive phase. The extent of its subtle and slimy grip gets enhanced if also a time limit is prescribed and demanded from the Divinity amongst other demands, unmindful of the great truth that time is Ishwara manifest, and can never be transcended by us subject to its imperious sway kalohi duratikramaha. Unless one desires to delude himself the Ishwara the sole Lord of time - Kalosmi, one will not sanely say that time could be surpassed, for, that would mean the capacity at will either to contract ,or prolong its duration as we know it here, and to bring about a given purpose whatever it may be in the time required at our will. A demand on the Divine or Ishwara is a demand on time. If, however, when that purpose - in this case purification - is left in the hands, of the Divine, either with a demand when it posits one's subjection to time, or a hope that it shall do it for us in spite of its Law that we alone should do it, it is positive egotism when the demand is made, showing that surrender is incomplete, and ignorance to live in hope, which is its negative phase. A combination of these two phases alone could arrogate to transcend the Divine Law and proclaim falsely an addition to Gita Yoga, for its Yoga.
That egotism of any sort makes for fall in all matters of commission and omission in any field - spiritual or material - is a patent truth, and more so in Yoga which is higher than these two and their synthesis as well. And so long there is the slightest tinge of it veiled or open, so, long the purification is not complete and as such the Divinity as the wholeness can never be said to have been contacted, irrespective or not of contacts one might have established in respect of Its aspects. And hence the aspirant can never be a fit vehicle to reflect the Divine truly and faithfully unless he creates a phantom in himself and in others.
That the divine aspects in the lower levels having various names can be contacted through the aid of such yogic efforts that are patently less in their power of purificatory excellence than the one of Samnyasa and Tyaga formulated in Adhyatma yoga should now be well-known. Even a little of – saranam - surrender in its crudest form being an act of slackening the hold on the egotistic I-ness is sufficient to bring in the divine grace without its visible contact. Through tortuous - tapasyas - partial yogic pro¬cesses, Asuras in the past like Hiranya and Ravana, unpurified of their egotism and passionate in their desires; secured the boons they wanted, from the partial aspects of the one Ishwara. So that, even though our motives may be impersonal and wishing the general good in the light of what we deem good, and seek to attain it through the One Ishwara higher than Its aspects, we are bound to fail to get at the excellent fruits envisaged by Adhyatma Yoga, if egotism, of any sort positive or negative persists unremoved, since surrender is not efficient and unconditional.. As such, whatever Ananda, power, and the like one may get down here can never have the stamp and seal of Adhyatmic exquisiteness, even though they may be taken to have an enhanced value over those sought after and. got by those Asuras, because of the greater conception of the Divinity herein than they have had, and with more impersonal aim here than they.
Consequently, the purificatory influence of Samnyasa and Tyaga is supreme, in that being dynamic in their influence and purpose, each with a potency remarkable for its utility all-round, different in its methods while complementing each other, they bring about the completeness facilitating fulfillment. The magni¬tude of their importance in this Yoga may be well gathered in the question by Arjuna to the Lord a question which is a summary as it were in a nut shell to get at a grasp of the entirety of the teachings implemented in Samnyasa and Tyaga, that had been the famous refrains in. the Holy Song - Samnyasasya Mahabhaho tatwami¬cchami veditum tyagasya Hrishikesa pritakkechinishudana.
It is only the combined influence of these two powerful agencies that could effect the dislodgment of the egotistic I-ness from its pinnacle, obsessing individuals in whatsoever stages of growth, spiritual or material, causing them to whirl helplessly in the wheel of birth and death eternally, and tasting during the life's sojourn here the alternating fruits of its attachment and aversion, the dual factors et hoc. Whether it is in its negative phase of ignorance, the citadel of Tamas, impervious to learning even when it is available and perverting it to one's own fancies; or in its positive phase which arrogates kartaham bhoktaham - I am the doer, I am the enjoyer, it is the nature of egotism with its firm hold on the intellectual, mental, and physical vehicles in man to blind his vision and bind him, accentuating and perpetrating separativeness in some form or the other, on the fertile soil of which it multiplies in growth. With the result, a thing that is necessary to be done is not done and that which is done is accompanied with flourishes, trumpets and claims. This egotistic I-ness whose subtle manifestations cannot be adequately catalogued in its sway is the hallmark of incompleteness - asampoorna, and can be gauged only by every one for himself through a thorough self analysis on proper data tatwa. It is the puri¬icatory influence of Samnyasa that helps the aspirant to break the adamantine wall of egotism of varied types that encases the I of man separated from the Divinity. And when the egotism is pulled, completeness results, sampoornatwam, which is Brahmatwam or Samatwam, sought after by the Yogi. Samnyasa may be thus termed as the negative purificatory force; and Tyaga on the other hand, is the act of converging and synthesizing upasamhrita, of all the multiplicities into the one All-Cause - Brahm, and surrender¬ing unconditionally to Its Infinite lowers Shakti, when only, the Atman in man, the representative of Brahm receiving the surrender commences to save him, as such Tyaga may be stated to be the posi¬tive purificatory force. That these two influences follow one another, Samnyasa being the first and then Tyaga is well seen in the Shrutis thus - Samnyasaha prathamaa suddhihi dwiteeya Tyaga ucchyate.
To get at an exact understanding and significance of these two concepts, a short recapitulation of their historical setting will prove helpful.
SAMNYASA CONCEPT IN VEDANTA
Of these two transmuting forces that go to the forging of the whole man, Tyaga may be stated to have assumed its active role with a positive, significance and importance commencing with the teachings of the Gita, when saranagati - self-surrender to Ishwara in one's own heart and to Brahm and its Shakti - Mamekam - controll¬ing the entirety of the Cosmos, constituted the foremost act in the yogic quest. Till then, Tyaga may be said to have been blended with the negative significance of Samnyasa, which dominated the spiritual pursuits previously, carrying with it the incorrect meaning of renunciation of all objective pursuits. In this land of Samnyasins, the term should at once conjure up the vision of those bedecked in orange robe. Mostly it is just an outward sign and nothing else now.
Essentially a Vendantic concept, this Order of Samnyasa is well-known to bean integral part of Varnasrama-Dharma-School with its four-fold division of individual life and society as a whole. Samnyasa was the fourth stage of the Ashrams Order of this School, the three previous stages in their order being Vanaprastha or the forest-dweller, Grihasta or the house-holder, and Brahmacharya or the celibate student studying and acquiring knowledge of the Vedas, and other Sciences so as to get fit in life. The orange robe by the Samnyasi is assumed indicative as it did of his having renounc¬ed all worldly ties such as personal possessions, personal rela¬tionships, and personal advancement in the world etc., and he is said to be solely and wholly devoting himself to those activities that conduce to the attainment of Moksha - freedom from the cyclic life of birth and, death, the fourth Purushartha or aim of man. He is also known to have already completed all his worldly duties in the three preceding stages of his life. From this it should be apparent that one who takes to this Order must be quite well advanced in age, exceptions barring. Not only this, he should have been perfectly convinced in respect of his choice, courage¬ous enough to sever all the worldly ties, an act not got without sufficient spiritual knowledge. The Shruti's description of them is characteristic - Vedanta vignana sunischit arthaha samnyasa.:. yogad yatayaha suddhasatwaha those firm in conviction due to Vedantic knowledge strive (onwards further) through Samnyasa-Yoga, being of purified nature. The Vedantic enquiry leading to the conclusion that Brahm is the All-Cause and resulting in the assuming of Samnyasa, was already gone through in thorough¬ness, and conviction arrived at during the forest life led by him in the third or Vanaprasthashrama. The life of Samnyasa may be deemed, thus, as one of practical application of the principles and precepts learnt during the previous stage. And hence it is, Vanaprasthas are termed the seekers of knowledge, the third Purushartha known as Artha, which means the gathering of understanding of the connotation of the various terms and. expressions in the said Vedantic literature.
In the word Vedanta, the suffix `anta' - and associated with, 'Veda' giving the meaning 'End of Vedas' would show that the theme dealt with therein, has reference, to the terminal stage reached after a complete satisfaction of the world life, the method of securing those world enjoyments constituting the main subject-matter dealt with in the Vedas. The term Moksha means end or completion of certain act or acts or endeavors and Vedanta, therefore, is known as a treatise on Moksha-dharma, referring to spiritual life exclusively. The Upanishads in the main are said to embody this Vedanta-Vidya.
The Vanaprasthas or the Vedantin are also known by the name of Sankhyas or Karana-vignanis, the determiners of the casual aspect of Brahm. Sankhya means numbers and those that go by that name through syllogisms and logic analyzes the varied multiplicities in the world so as to arrive at the conclusion of Brahm as the All-Cause. In this reasoning the premise of a two ness is inevitable, which gradually resulted in the complete bifurcation. of the All-Cause - Brahm and the World as two entire¬ly different entities unrelated to each other, thereby; the spiritual and worldly pursuits also got separated on the slogan Brahman satyam Jagat mitya - Brahm is true and World is false, as is found in some Upanishads; though the term - mitya - was not. so much to deny the concreteness of the World as it was to educate the mind in man from too much attachment to the contents therein. However, in the latter Schools of Vedanta, Adwaita, for instance, took strong note of this mitya-vada - falsity of the world slogan; which constituted its chief plank, with ten Upanishads, chosen at random out of a hundred and eight and in other calculations one thousand one hundred and eighty, with a stress thereon as enough for Brahm-vichara, and ignoring the rest in spite of their containing vast treasures of' knowledge. A complete renunciation of the World as an end in itself was advocated with a zeal and thoroughness, opening thereby, the Samnyasa Order to each and every one irrespective of one's age, unlike before, provided that he had the necessary attainments, which deteriorated gradually into one of though with no attainments also, and latterly into a resort for lazy loons, and lately as a refuge against unemployment problem, of course with exceptions. The kind of Vedantic enquiry which dominated thus and studied, after Samnyasa was taken at whatever age and with no qualifications, was never in the minds of the framers of Ashrama-dharma, where, qualification and age were necessary to enter this Order. The result of this indiscriminate Samnyasa was a complete relaxation in the study of the Vedas, considered obligatory to the youth, in his stage of Brahmacharya, when, he was said to be aiming the first Purushartha - Dharma. However, the giving up of the study of the Vedas should be considered good, and as part of the Divine Plan condemned as the Vedas of trigunic influences were, by the Gitacharya.The Grihasthas or House-holders, who were aiming to realize the second 'Purushartha. - Kama or the pleasures of life, indulged indiscriminately, on these Veda influences, in perform¬ing Yagnas or sacrifices for invoking Devas like Mitra, Varuna, Indra etc., and in endless, ritualistic practices, so as to secure their objects in this life, and also to attain Swarga or Heaven and positions like Indra in the other Worlds after death. The ways and means by which the said objects are got formed the main theme of these Vedas, so much so, the study thereof created the thirst to get them, resulting in the complete obliviousness to Mukti. The Adwaita-Vedanta may be stated, in a sense, as the savior of the Mukti ideal, though it worked sufficient mischief in another way bringing as to where we are now.
A word in respect of the Varna aspect of the original Varnashrama School of Vedanta is well warranted here because of its close association with the Ashrama Order. Literally Varna means color, but it is to convey the idea of work that one is doing. It was classified fourfold. The work of Brahmana came first, the Kshastriya, followed by Vaishya, and lastly Sudra. This division, which subsequently crystallized into the grouping of communities doing certain avocations indicated by their names and latterly degenerated into one by birth, was not so originally, corresponding as it did with the four Ashrama Order mentioned before. Thus, in the term 'Varnashrama', ashrama indicated the stage in which the individual is at a given time in life and varna denoted the work in which he is then engaged. In the first - Brahmacharya stage the work consisted in doing Brahmana dharma - acquiring knowledge of every aspect of life, in the Grihasta stage, he is said to be doing the work of Kshatriya dharma in respect of discharging household duties, requiring as they did a lot of buffeting with lusty sinews; as Vanaprastha, he is a Vaishya acquiring the wealth, not of worldly possessions but of higher spiritual knowledge, in the Samnyasa life, he is known to be doing Sudra dharma, engaged in the practical application of the knowledge he learnt in the previous stage and doing impersonal services In this way the three prime vehicles in man viz., the intellectual, mind-emotional, and sensory organs are thoroughly exercised, the first in .the student days, the second when he was a householder and forest dweller and the third in the Samnyasa life. The practical work of the Samnyasi consisted, not in doing any manual labor, but in purifying and chastening the sense organs and establishing a conquest over their ever outgoing tendencies by withdrawing within - dushtendriya vigrimbana vijayapradam samnyasam. This is his work - Karma; and as he goes on, he was known to effect the annihilation of the egotistic-I-ness the root-impurity, when, he is said to get at a union-Yoga with the Divinity. And hence in the original Vedantic literature, the Samnyasi is hailed a Karma Yogi, whatever may be the name by which he is known in the latter days. This work of Karma-Yoga of the Samnyasi is thus different from the work - karma of the Householder, wherein, engaged as he is, with the aid of the aspectual Gods he invoked, in giving a full play to his senses and egotistic impulses.
The purification of the senses by the Samnyasi was carried out on the well known rule of Sadhana chatushtaya -four fold practices for attaining Mukti, and also for the union - Yoga, of the individual soul - Jivatma with the Universal Soul - Paramatma - the process as a whole coming to be known as Samnyasa Yoga, men¬tioned in the Upanishads. It is this rule of Sadhana-chatushtaya that latterly evolved into those various Yogic Schools that are known by the names of Hatha Yoga, Ashtanga Yoga, Laya Yoga, various Tantric practices and the like, some of which deteriorated into tortuous body killing practices, and crude and cruel deeds - karsyanta sareerastam bhooda gramam achetasaha as described in the Gita, either with a mistaken idea of effecting bodily puri¬fication or for gaining their objects of passion. Consequently, a divergence between these-Yoga Schools and Vedanta resulted, as is evidenced by the significant omission in their precepts in the latter-day Vedanta Schools of the name Yoga, as one solely undergone for aiming and securing powers - Siddhis, and acclaiming Gnana a mere intellectual understanding as supreme and an end in itself for attaining Mukti, on the basis, that the Divinity is contacted with such knowledge, since Nirguna, their highest conception of the said Divinity, was said, to mean incorrectly formless. This notion gave rise to the other Schools of Vedanta, some claiming Bhakti or devotion as supreme - Visishtadwaita, while the Dwita School swore that Karmas or acts such as poojas, vratas, and holy baths as exclusively efficient, the highest conception of God of these two Schools being Saguna that is one with form viz. Vishnu. This Vishnu-cult rebounded in the former School taking to Shiva-cult and so on.
That this was not what the original Vedanta School aimed at should be clear from the fact that out of the two main divisions that governed life viz., the one that ended with Samnyasa, and the one after it, the former; was for realizing the fruits of world-life by worshipping the God with form - Saguna by whatever name it is known, while with the latter commencing with Samnyasa, the Nirguna aspect of it formed the theme of realization. What Nirguna really meant we shall presently see, but it never meant formless.
The Samnyasins in accordance with the stages they atta¬ined in their
practices were classified into a six-fold divi¬sion, and barring the
last two, the first four formed a class. These are known as Atmeeyas or
one devoted to Atmic quest of the Sankhya variety, as opposed to those leading
the world life - Prakritas. Of the first four stages, the foremost is known
as Kuteechaka or one who lives in a hermitage practicing the second is Parivrajaka
a homeless wanderer teaching the people; in the third or Hamsa stage he
is said to have attained perfect discrimination between the true and the
false, and it is also known that only in this stage he aims at knocking
out the egotistic I-ness by chanting the famous formula - Hamsa soham soham
Hamsaha - Brahm is myself and myself is Brahm;
In the next Paramahamsa stage as a result of his having dismantled the said I-ness, he is said to achieve the contacting of the Divinity in its aspect as Nirguna or Atma, free and – untained by any kind of prakritic or worldly activities gunateeta, remaining only as a.Sakshi - Witness thereto, and enseated in the heart of every one Ishwara sarvabhootanam hriddese ati tishthati, and known to be of the size of a thumb in the Upanishads Angushtamatra. Purusha. This is termed to be the attainment of the Nirguna contacting, the fruition of Karma-Yogam of the Samnyasi who had contacted already-the other aspects of the Divinity known as Akshara and Jivatma of in the earlier stages. The attainment of this Nirguna level is known as reaching the Adhyasthana or Pramasthana mentioned in the Gita
Yogi param sthanamupidi chadyam, when, he is said to be a Mukta - free from the liability to cyclic life helplessly. It is here that his title of Yogi as such is established - Yogarooda, while it was just one of mere favor before, because he was in the work - karma, of ascending the ladder of Yoga - Arurukshu. He is also hailed by the name of Vijayi - one who has conquered death and is declared to have attained swatantra - freedom of actioning
The next two stages Turiyateeta and Avadhoota, the former meaning transcending the fourth and the latter denoting nakedness - the nakedness is not so much with reference to clothes as it is to indicate the full freedom of the Life-Principle to discard and assume the body at its will, may be said to have reference to the worship of the Suddha aspect of the Divinity Paramatma, known as Suddhatman in the Upanishads, entitling the aspirant to official positions in the Hierarchy for carrying out the divine plan of world evolution, the nature of which could be gathered from Suddha literature, and of which Bhagavan Nara-Narayana, at Badari the direct Representative of Suddha-Paramatma, and an amsa of Suddha-Brahm, is its official Head.
Various powers or Shaktis are said to be developed during said practices of raising the consciousness - Kosha sankramanam in the the Nirguna level, which are the outer indications of the inner development. The constant Vedan¬tic urge, however, born out of fear, is not to get caught by the influence of these powers or hanker after them. This fear is due to the persistence till the very last, of the egotistic I-ness un-removed earlir. In Suddha literature aiming at these powers are enjoined as a requisite since the starting point of the practice commences with the removal of the said egotism even while in active life, so that, those powers generated healthily may be used for the world's weal - lokasangraha.
The Samnyasi or Karma-Yogi is deemed thus to have destroyed the effects of his accumulated actions - sanchita-karma, and also the seeds of future birth agami-karma, and to be engaged only in living out the prarabda-karma which has resulted in the taking of his body and over which he had no control. Because he had through his practices set at naught the effects of actions causing rebirth, he is said to have attained Naishkarmya-Siddhi - state of action¬lessness. This idea of actionlessness, which the Samnyasi is said to achieve, gradually reflected back, on the basis, that Samnyasi is a non-doer, in the giving up of all kinds of works what ever they are, connected with the world either by non starting any work herein, or by throwing out mercilessly any work even though it is incomplete by assuming Samnyasa, because, the belief was wrongly hugged that by taking to Samnyasa at any time and renouncing all worldly actions, Naishkarmya-Siddhi was achieved resulting in Moksha. And thus it could be seen how Samnyasa came to be meant renunciation of action.
This kind of practice, to attain Mukti and achieve divine contact - Yoga, of Nirguna, through Naishkarmya-Sidhi, which, the Sankhya-Vedanta School followed, commenced with acquiring the knowledge of Brahm-Gnana, then having the faith and firmness to pursue its - Bhakti, and actually pursuing it - Karma, is crisply declared by the Lord-Gnanayogena Samkhyanam. However, this Sankhya School is said to be Vishma, because of its first postulate in a two-ness - Brahm and Jagat as two different and unrelated factors, and that to attain the former the latter is to be given up - a notion which obsessed Arjuna also when he desired to give up the fight, legitimate though it was, and to take up to spiritual pursuit on false notions of Naishkarmya-Siddhi and Samnyasa etc., that were the order of the day then. To disabuse from the mind of Arjuna, all ideas of opposed two-ness - dwandwa-moha, whether in thought, word, or deed, the result of the egotistic I-ness, impure and personal; to follow the path of the Yogis in the performance of all action as and when they fall to one's lot according to one's nature and in accordance with the rules of divine behest, during one's stay in the World which is but the garment of the Divinity - Brahm, in which It Itself operates: and thus to surrender the fruits of those actions and oneself to It entirely and un¬conditionally, by which one gets released, and attains the highest contact with the Divine, the Lord gave out his superb teaching.
It is notorious that in spite of this grand teaching the latter day Vedanta Schools persisted in the incorrect understanding of Samnyasa, as renunciation of actions of the World, apart from their preferences to Gnana, Bhakti, and Karma, ignoring that the synthesis of them all is necessary for attain¬ment, and in endless religious conflicts, while the general public on whom it reflected lapsed into a state of lethargy laziness terminating in their becoming serfs. It may be un¬questionably stated that the Karma-Yoga interpretation by the late Lokamanya Bala Gangadar Tilak, though partially true of the Gita which was formerly interpreted by the three Vedanta Schools to suit their own ideologies, gave an arrest to the deteriorating tamasic influence that had taken possession of this land for the last so many centuries, resulting in the precarious position to which we were brought in. With the expected public appearance of the Lord-Incarnate the turn that was given according to the divine plan, is sure to shoot out to its highest. In the mean while, let us know what the Gita says with reference to Samnyasa and Tyaga, as also about the nature of the Divinity, very briefly here for our purposes.
SAMNYASA AND TYAGA IN THE GITA
When the lord exhorted Arjuna to be a Yogi and fight a term for all actionings
in general on the dictum Karmayogena Yoginam, the Karma-Yoga herein, was
not of the Samnyasi Order engaged in subjective pursuits solely, according
to the Vishama-Sankhya of the Vedantic School, but of that type of Karma
Yoga, which, the ancient Yogis did kuru karma tasmat twam poorvihi poorvataram.
These Yogis were Adhyatma Yogis, and yet they engaged themselves in the
world-activities. How did they do? They did it on the basis of Samatwa or
Brahmatwa which. is Yoga samatwam yoga uchyate. This doing naturally required
a knowledge of Sama and Samatwa previously. All knowledge whether theory
or practice in respect of anything is Sankhya because of the analysis it
enjoins for knowledge. It is Vishma-Sankhya when the knowledge is devoid
of any synthetic basis, such as - that Brahm and the World are different,
and all those dualities, while it is Sama-Sankhya; when such knowledge is
based on synthesis. This synthetic basis is Brahm of which the world is
its garment, wherein, the said Brahm itself operates in a three fold manner
as Life-Principle, Atma – Prakriti, and Power – Shakti and Power,
and Man is declar¬ed to be a component of these three in the main, detailed
Knowledge of which constituting the study of Gayatri dharma. So that; while Vishma-Sankhya leads men to separativeness, Sama-Sankhya leads to Yoga - unity; and Yoga itself is a prac¬tical application of the said Sama-Sankhya knowledge. It is sufficiently known that theory of anything is useless without Practice and also vice versa, but nothing can be well done without proper knowledge, and of all knowledge synthetic knowledge is supreme since it helps to synthetic functioning which is the best and excellent. - Yogaha Karmasu Kouchalam. Consequently on this extreme intimacy of Sankhya and Yoga, they are declared to be practically one Ekam Sarmkhyamcha Yogamcha. It is because of its thorough exposition of everything about Brahm in which the World is, and also of the ways of all attain¬ments - Spiritual, Worldly, and Higher, through Sankhya and Yoga, that Gita is venerated and hailed as a treatise on Yoga-Brahma Vidya, and not as Vedanta or any other school at all.
In the dictum ‘Karmayogcna Yoginam’ the vital difference between this Karma-Yoga of the Yogis en-seated in Samatwa and therefore also Sama-Sankhyas, and that of those of thee Vedantic School which is Vishama-Sankhya, consists in the fact that while the latter abstract away their spiritual pursuits as opposed to objective pursuits and devote themselves to exclusive subjective practices, the former, by coordinating in the synthe¬sis that everything is Brahm, everything is its nature and everything is necessity, the three great Mahavakyas of Suddha Dharma Mandalam – Sarvam Kalvidam Brahm, Sarvam Brahma Swabhavajam, Sarvam Avasyakam, engage themselves here, before getting into the higher realm of Yoga, in performing synthetic action, with synthetic love and devotion, and synthetic knowledge. That Samnyasa is necessary for any Yoga is granted in both the schools, since it is Karma Yoga. Gita says thus also – Yam samnyasamidi prahuhu yogam tam viddhi, but while Samnyasa is the termination of world life in the Vedanta-Sankhya or Vishama Sankhya , it is the starting point in the world life itself in the Gita Sankhya or Sama Sankhya. It is to smash. the separativity tendency of the Vedanta School and to inculcate the idea of Yogic Unity of Spiritual and Worldly pursuits that the teachings of the Gita were given.
That Samnyasa is necessary for the fruition of Karma-Yoga of the Vedanta viz; the contacting of the Divinity as Nirguna was already seen. This fruition is the result of vacat¬ing the egocentric initiative concepts of the impure I-ness. It is this impurity in the mind of this Samnyasi that made him renounce the worldly action as hindrance previously, and its removal constituted his last act, as a result or of his misread¬ing and misapplying the Idea of Naishkarmya-Siddhi. The Samnyasa of the Sama-Sankhya of the Gita consists in the renunciation of the said egocentric I-ness in all spheres of actioning, intelle¬ctual, mental, and physical, as a very first step and not the mere renunciation of physical actionings alone as exclusively forming part of Samnyasa. This can be successfully affected only when the idea of the opposing two-ness is removed by synthesizing them through Yoga in the One-Brahm, and not by merely taking to the Samnyasa Order - Samriyasastu mahabaho dukkham aptum ayogataha. Only he who has effected a conquest over the separative I-ness in this way is a Samnyasi in the real sense of the term, irrespective of whatever may be his life, because he does not hanker after the fruits to himself or to his limited group – anasrita karma phalam karyam karma karoti yaha sa Sanyasi sa Yogi; nor does he ideate that such and such a thing alone is good for himself or for the general - sarva samkhalpa samnyasi, since he aims to achieve success in Yoga - Yogarooda. As a complete result of synthesizing the opposite of thought, word, and deed, in the Oneness, one becomes a Samnyasi in the true sense, because of his renunciation of personal I-ness, which results in Asaktabuddhi - a detached intellect Jitatma a conquest over the mind-emotional aberrations, and Vigataspruhaha - freedom from grasping, thus achieving Naishkarmya Siddhi - actionlessness - Asakta buddhihi sarvatra jitatma vigataspuruhaha Naishkarmya siddhim paramam Samnyasenaadigacchati. Such action-lessness is got, not by refusal to start any work at all na karmana anarambat naish¬karmyam purushosnute, nor by renunciation of actions to be done - nacha sanya sanadeva, but by the removal of the personal predilections of the impure and egotistic I-ness in all actioning - yasya naham krito bhavo; so that, whatever actioning he does, or desists from doing, he is said to be a non-doer, even when doing it excellently.
To get at this attitude of mind in respect of all action it is obvious that the nature of the synthetic basis of all dual manifestations has to be correctly grasped as also the essential placement and composition of the said dualities in the World and in one's own body are to be studied and learnt as a first step, since these two aspects constitute real and true knowledge - Sama-Gnana - adhytmagnana-nityatwan tatwagnanarthadharsanam; and hence the reference by the Lord to Gnanisand Tatwadarsis Gnaninaha tatwadharsinaha, the Knowers of the theory and practice of attaining Brahm in its unitary and multiple manifestations.
While Samnyasa, thus, is a disperser of the ego of separativeness in man, Tyaga is the unifier of the multiplicities into the One Brahm - Ekam, and its Shakti - Power, and when this recognition progresses, the surrender becomes more and fuller; of which the surrender to the Ishwara in one's own heart is the first and foremost. The nature of the various aspects of this-One Ishwara abiding within and without is conditioned by the nature of the Shakti with which it is associated, and the nature of Matter Prakriti, in which it operates at a, given time. That is how the various aspects of the Ishwara as realized by the Karma-Yogi, Bhakti-Yogi and Gnana-Yogi are differentiated in progressive ascendance, until at last the Atma-Yogi gains the full contact in the Turiya level of the Divinity ever in Yoga Paramatma, who is the One Actor, Enjoyer, Creator, Converger, Sustainer and Everything; we, being mere agencies; and we, not progressively realizing so, are caught in the whirlpool of the world-process helplessly. Higher aspects of Yoga beyond Satchidananda viz., Purusha are also attained solely through Samnyasa and Tyaga.
Hence, it will be seen how important Samnyasa and Tyaga are, not only to the higher stages of Yoga but also even to gain the excellent fruits of this life here in accordance with the extent of one's acquisition thereof.
The nature of the Karma-Yogi, who has acquired Samnyasa and Tyaga in full
is described thus in the Gita – Yatswabhavat metatvagnihi karunnihiupalakshyate
andimadyanidana soantarsmi Saswatacha - That, which is discerned by those
(Karma- ogis) as the Principle of Atmic (spiritual) association with. Prakriti
(material) in terms of causes and effects am I – the Indweller without
origin middle or end. The Karma-Yogi worships herein, the Ishwara as Antaryami
or the Sootratma or the Immanence as a thread in the beads - sootre maniganaiwa,
within and without, in terms of the five causes that govern the World and
1) Adhisthana - (loka or body),
2) Karta – (The ardent aspirant),
3) Karanam (Means or knowledge),
4) Cheshta (doing),
5) Daiva ( The Ishwara or the General Cause)
Constituting the All-Cause - Brahm; which results; according with their various formations in Brahmic beatitudes desired for. Mention is made in the Gita of these five aspects in the sloka: Adhishthanam tada karta karanam cha prithakvidham vividhascha prithakcheshta daivam chivatra panchamam. Of these five 'Daivam' is the Atmic (spiritual) aspect of the Brahmic Cause, and 'Adhishthana' is its prakritic (material) aspect, while the other three -. 'Karanam’, 'Karta', and 'Cheshta' are its shaktic aspect, respectively; connoting Knowledge - Gnana, Desire- Iccha, and Action-Kriya, which get released consequent on the interplay of Atma and Prakriti Spirit and Matter. Karta or the doer is equated to Iccha – desire in the view of the that ever individual being primarily represents a desire-force A combination of these five casual factors of the one All-Cause-Brahm symbolized as Omkara and represented in its triune aspect – Vastutrya of A.U.M constitutes the manifest World, its contents and its varied samsaric process whether just, equitable or otherwise, these five together bring about the result - Nyayyam va vipareetam va panchite tasya hetavaha. Hence to posit and take refuge in the exclusiveness of the Spiritual Cause - Atman for the workings in the World for a given purpose is just rank ignorance of truth - Tatrivam sati kartaram atmanam kevalam to yaha pasyatyakritabuddhitvanna sa pasyati durmatihi. It is merely a claim to be lazy.
The Karma-Yogi, who has mastered the workings of these five causes, being chastened by Samnyasa and Tyaga, achieves swatantra - freedom, and engages in actions suitable to himself in accordance with time and place, dedicating the fruits of his actions and himself to Ishwara, the General Cause. To him, the Divine contact is a living reality, the objective Representative of which is Bhagavan Sri Narayana at Badari, who, abiding in the exquisite form of Devi-Prakriti particles, conducts the governance of this World in the same way Paramatma does, as the Ishwara of the entire Cosmos, and as such nothing that takes place in this World is beyond His notice. The Yogis, Gnanis, Devotees, and the Great Ones of Suddha Dharma Mandala offer their adorations to Him only, and receive their inspiration from Him in the discharge of their functions which naturally have the hall-mark of excellence, being divinely directed.
It is this Plank of Karma Yoga that is the basis for the higher realms of Adhyatma-Yoga, reached in the fullness of time, after one realizes that he has completed his duties in this world process.